Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2006, featuring colorectal cancer trends and impact of interventions (risk factors, screening, and treatment) to reduce future rates
Edwards, Ward, Kohler, Eheman, Zauber, Anderson, Jemal, Schymura, et. al, start of by providing a little background information on where they obtained their data from and the cancer in which they were interested in studying. In this article they focus on incidence and death rate trends for all cancers combined and the top 15 cancers among all races combined and each of the 5 major racial/ethnic groups in the United States, which are whites, blacks, Asians, and pacific islanders. They mainly however focus on colorectal cancer and its incidence and death rates. They also emphasize how utilizing microsimulation modeling can be extremely helpful in understanding past and future trends. By gaining a better understanding of the trends, the data can be utilized to improve cancer control planning and policy decisions. After analyzing their data they found that incidence and death rates for all cancer combined had tremendously decreased for men and women as well as all racial/ethnic groups. The decreases seen in incidence and death rates were mainly for three cancers in men, which were lung, prostate, and colorectal cancer. When looking at areas of decline for women they found that rates of incidence and death had decreased for breast cancer and colorectal cancer. The data also showed that colorectal cancer death rates had mainly declined because of improved screening, decreasing risk factors among individuals by educating and doing research to better understand the mechanisms behind the cancer, and lastly providing adequate treatment have all played a role in helping reduce the death rates. They conclude their article by saying that even though a lot of advancements have been made in cancer research, understanding the causes, prevention methods, and treatments, even more research needs to be conducted for all cancers. By utilizing policies, healthcare services effectively, communicating, and technological advancements they believe that more can be accomplished concerning cancer and its impacts on incidence and death rates.