Haiman, Stram, Wilkens, Pike, Kolonel, Henderson, Marchand discuss the different incidence rates observed among blacks, Native Hawaiians, other Polynesians, Japanese Americans, Hispanics, and whites for risk of lung cancer caused by smoking cigarettes among men and women. The authors utilized a cohort study and in order to assess the risk of lung cancer among these ethnic/racial groups utilized the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Individuals who smoked no more than 30 cigarettes per day, African Americans and Native Americans had higher risk of lung cancer than the other ethnic/racial groups. If individuals smoked more than 30 cigarettes per day, the results were not statistically significant. The authors concluded from their study that African Americans and Native Americans who smoke are more susceptible to lung cancer than whites, Japanese Americans, and Latinos. It is also stated that by looking at differences in metabolism of nicotine and tobacco carcinogens could possibly help explain the differences seen in certain ethnic/racial groups who are more susceptible to lung cancer due to smoking cigarettes.